Brief Biography of IIIrd-Ummul-Mumineen A'isha Siddiqa (RA) Bint Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA)
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|Marriage Particulars||Name||:||A'isha Siddiqa (RA) Bint Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA)||Tribe Name||:||Quraysh||Status before the Marriage||:||Bachelor Girl (She was the only Bachelor girl among the wives of the Prophet (pbuh))||Year of her marriage with Prophet (pbuh)||:||10 Nubuwwat (10th Year of Prophesy) (Contradiction in Year)||Prophet (pbuh) paid her Mehar (bridal money)||:||500 Dirhams||Age at the time of her marriage with Prophet (pbuh)||:||She was 6 years or 9 years old and her marriage was consummated after Hijrat to Madina Munawara when she was at 9 or 11 years.(Contradiction in Age). Prophet (pbuh) was 54 years old.||No. of years with the Prophet (pbuh)||:||She lived with the Prophet (pbuh) for 9 years.||Date of Expiration||:||17th Ramadan-ul-Mubarak in 58 Hijri in the Caliphate of Maviya (RA)||Total Age||:||66 Years||No. of Ahadith narrated||:||2210|
The initiative of A'isha's (RA) marriage was taken by Khaulah bint Hakeem, One day after the death of Khadijah (RA) Khaulah came to the Prophet (pbuh) and asked him to have second marriage. She said that there are two women, one is widowed and the another is bachelor girl. The widowed one is Umme-Sauda bint Zama (RA) & bachelor one is A'isha bint Abu Bakr Sidiq (RA). The Prophet (pbuh) agreed to marry A'isha (RA). Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) solemnised the marriage ceremony.
A'isha's (RA) marriage was very simple it is said that her "Mehar" was 500 Dirhams. Her marriage was consummated after Hijrat to Madina Munawara when she was at 9 years. She remained with the Prophet (pbuh) for 9 years. Her marriage is an example for us. We can only avoid the useless and extravagent traditions which are now existing in our society. Here a point is very much emphasized that the marriage was consummated only after the payment of Mehar.
Three important things took place in this marriage as:
This was not done in A'isha's (RA) marriage.The meaning of "Education" is generally considered to read and write, but this is not so. The real meaning of "Education" is to try to know the things which we don not know. A'isha (RA) was very intelligible and gained knowledge of multifarious problems from Prophet (pbuh). She was the mean of spreading the knowledge of "Quran" and the practices of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). She was very young and therefore she used to pick up everything. She saw and learned form the Prophet (pbuh).
A'isha (RA) imparted knowledge to the famous scholors through her discourses on the Holy Quran and Hadith. She used to solve and gave correct answers to the complicated problems of "Fiqah" jurisprudence. She was far ahead in knowledge. Imam Zahri in "Tabqat Vol.II" says, "A'isha (RA) was the greatest scholor among all the people and very eminent scholors used to enquire from her".
In the opinion of Uru bin Zubair was that he did not find any great scholor than A'isha (RA) in the knowledge of "Quran", about "Halal & Harram", poetry, medicine, Arabic History & Genealogy. She was used to give "Fatwa" during the time of Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) & Othman (RA). She narrated about 2210 Hadith of the Prophet (pbuh). These qualities of A'isha (RA) which made her very dear to the Prophet (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) perfectly trained and educate her in his (pbuh) company.
A'isha Siddiqa (RA) narrates that there are 9 characteristic properties in me which were not awarded by Allah (S.T.) to any other woman except Maryam bint Imran as below:
She had achieved the aspect of intellectual, literary and religious teachings of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). She had superiority over all the wives of Prophet (pbuh) except Khadijatul-Kubra (RA).
Every member of her family had the honour to be "Sahabi or Sahabia" i.e. companion of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). To be "Sahabi or Sahabia" is the greatest honour and opportunity to the human beings.
A'isha (RA) was very fond of playing with the dolls and with her playmates when she was a child. She was also fond of "Swinging". Once the Prophet (pbuh) came to her house when she was playing with the dolls. He (pbuh) found a play-horse with beautiful wings. The Prophet (pbuh) enquired A'isha (RA), "how is this? meaning the horses do not have wings". She abruptly replied that "Sulaiman (pbuh) had such horses". The Prophet (pbuh) was very much pleased with her answer.
A'isha (RA) had terrible memory, she used to remember things as she saw though she was of 8 at the time of Hijrat, but she used to mention all the details and events of Hijrat. She used remember everything the Prophet (pbuh) said and whatever Prophet (pbuh) taught. She narrated about 2210 Hadith. The great and famous scholors and companions of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) used to approach her for guidance. We are really proud of our mother A'isha Siddiqa (RA) for contribution in "Fiqah" specially the problems associated with the women.
Here we quote a few incidents which speak her sagacity and understanding of Islamic concepts in her proper perspectives.
Once the Prophet (pbuh) vowed not to meet and visit his wives for a month this is known as "Iela". Naturally, A'isha (RA) was feeling very sorry and she was upset and grieved by this separation. She was counting each day anxiously and impartiently. Allah's (ST) messenger came to A'isha's (RA) house, she said to him "O Allah's (ST) messenger you swore that you would visit after a month but now only 29 days have passed. Th Prophet (pbuh) said "The present month is of 29 days". (Bukhari)
Once Amire-Maviya (RA) asked his courtier to tell him as to who was the greatest scholor of that day. He replied, "Amire-Maviya(RA) was the greatest scholor". Again Amire-Maviya (RA) asked him to say by oath. Then he said, "Ummul-Mumineen A'isha Siddiqa (RA)".
Once the Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, "Learn a part of "Deen" from the fair lady i.e. A'isha (RA)".The scholors says that this part of "Deen" is that pertains to the women. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) led a very simple life and he (pbuh) liked and desired that the "Ummul-Mumineen" should be perfect models. He (pbuh) paid special attention in teaching to A'isha (RA) as she was very young and extraordinarily intelligent with sharp memory.She used to live with the Holy Prophet (pbuh) in a the small room which was adjacent to the mosque. This room was about 2 to 2.5 Mts. long. The walls were of mud. The roof was of dried 2 leaves of the palm tree and about 1.5 Mts. high. A blanket used to hang as a curtain. She had a cot, a stool and a pillow which were filled with the coir. She also had two pots which were meant to store "Dates" and other provisions but they were often remained empty. If at all they were full at any time she never hesitate to give all this in charity. She said very often she did not even have the oil to lit the lamp. After the conquerrance of "Khaiber" she was granted some pension but she used to give it in charity within a short time. She used to get many presentations and gifts from the companions but as per her nature and habit she never kept them with her but gave them to the needy and poor. She used to do all these things as she had heard from the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and She (RA) saying that: "O Allah (S.T.) make me live as a "Miskeen" i.e. very poor who always is in need of help" and give me death while as "Miskeen".
Once Amire-Maviya (RA) had sent one lakh (1,00,000) Dirhams from Syria. She gave all this money before the night came. Imagine, how huge is this amount may be it's value near about a Billion Dollar now. The maid servant reminded her that she (RA) did not keep anything even to purchase things to "Break the Fast". A'isha (RA) told her why did not tell this earlier.Once she was observing Fast, a beggar came and asked for "Bread" A'isha (RA) asked the maid servant to give the bread which was meant for her "Breaking the Fast". In the evening there came plenty of "Meat & Bread" as a gift. A'isha (RA) asked the maid servant if that was not a better gift than the bread.
The Holy Prophet (pbuh) used to show gestures to please A'isha (RA). He (pbuh) once asked A'isha (RA) to take up a race on foot. First time A'isha (RA) won the race because of her light body constitution but the secnd time he (pbuh) won the race as she was a little bit heavy. The Prophet (pbuh) said "now the competition is settled", first she won and then he (pbuh) won.
The Holy Prophet (pbuh) & A'isha Siddiqa (RA) was very often used to eat from the same plate and drink from the same pot. Once the Prophet (pbuh) told her that he (pbuh) knew at once whenever she was an angry with him. She enquired "How?" Muhammad (pbuh) said that when she was pleased with him she would invoke by saying "By Muhammad's (pbuh) Allah" but when she was an angry with him would say, "By Ibrahim's (pbuh) Allah".
Thus our beloved Prophet (pbuh) had set a perfect example for mankind to follow.
A'isha's (RA) love and devotion to Muhammad (pbuh) and his cause made her excel over his other wives in many ways. Abu Musa reported Allah's (ST) Messenger as saying, "A'isha's (RA) superiority over the other women is like the superiority of "Tharid (a food)" over other foods.
A'isha (RA) led a very simple life as was desired & taught by the Holy Prophet (pbuh) though she had a maid servant in her house, she used to do the work herself. She used to grind and make paste of flour, cook food and prepare for his (pbuh). She used to comb and scented though the use of gold and silk is permissible for woman in Islam. Muhammad (pbh) did not like the members of his family to wear the "Gold". Once A'isha (RA) wore gold bangles and he (pbuh) said "Shall I tell you a better plan?", take off these bangles and got two silver bangles and put safforn colour on them i.e. "Nasai".A'isha (RA) narrated that on one of the Prophet's (pbuh) journey she was with the Holy Prophet (pbuh) along with the other companions. They had to stay at "Al-Baida" where her necklace got broken and fell off. So, Allah's (ST) Messenger asked the companions to search for it. There was no water at that place. After a long search also they could not find out the necklace. The people reported the matter to Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) that due to A'isha (RA) they were detained at that place where there was no water for ablution and the time for the dawn prayer was getting exhausted. Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) then went to the tent of A'isha (RA) where Prophet (pbuh) was asleep with his head on her thigh. He (RA) was angry and admonished his daughter for this. However the Prophet (pbuh) got up for the prayer. Then Allah (S.T.) revealed the divine verse of "Tayyammum" (dry ablution). Everybody performed "Tayyammum" and offered the prayer. The famous and eminent companion Usaid bin Huddair said "O family of Abu Bakr (RA)! This is not the first blessing of yours". Abu Bakr (RA) was very much pleased having heard the above verses of "Tayyammum". This is really a gift of Allah (S.T.) to the whole "Ummah". The deep and true love between the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and A'isha (RA) was comented as their marriage was based on spritual power and on Allah's (ST) Will. The incident of "Slander" which is knows as "Ifik" is very famous which the 'Munafiqeen' took up to defame the mother of the believers: A'isha Siddiqa (RA) herself narrates: "Whenever the Holy Prophet (pbuh) went out on a journey, he (pbuh) decided by lots as to which of his wives would accompany him (pbuh). Accordingly, it was turn to accompany him (pbuh) during the expedition to "Banu Mustelaq" on the return juourney, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) halted for the night which was the last stage to Madina Munawara. After taking rest when still it was night they began to make preparations for the departure. So, I went outside the camp to ease myself. When I returned and I was about to reach my camp then I noticed that my necklace had fallen down somewhere. I went back in search of it, but in the meantime, the caravan moved off and I was left behind all alone. The four carriers of the litter had placed it on my camel without noticing that it was an empty because of my light weight which was due to lack of food in those days. I wrapped myself in my sheet and lay down in the hope that when they did not find me, they would send search party to pick me up. In the meantime, I feel asleep. In the morning when Safwan bin Muttal passed that way, he recognized me for he had seen me several times before the commandment about "Purdah" was sent down. No sooner did he see me then he stopped his camel and cried out spontaneously, "How sad! The wife of Holy Prophet (pbuh) has been left here". As this I uttering another word. I climbed the camel which was with Safwan bin Muattal. He led the camel and we reached at about noon and took the caravan. Nobody had noticed that I had been left behind. Afterwards I came to know that this incident had been used to slander me. Abdullah bin Ubey was the foremost among the slanderers. When I reached Madina I felt ill and stayed in bed for more than a month. I was quite unaware of the events that were taking place. The news of slander was spreading like a scandal, in the city and had also reached the Holy Prophet (pbuh). I noticed that the Holy Prophet (pbuh) was not so keen and concerned about my illness as he used to be. He would come but without addressing me directly. He (pbuh) would enquire from others about my health and leave the house. Therefore it troubled my mind that something had gone wrong somewhere. So, I took leave of him and went to my mother's house for better nursing. While I was there, one night I went out to ease myself in the company of Mistab's mother who was a first cousin of my father. As she was walking, she stumbled over something and cried out spontaneously, "May Mistab perish!" to this I retorted, what a good mother you are that you curse your own son", the son who took part in "Badar" battle. She replied, "My dear daughter, are you not aware of his scandel-Mongering? Then she told me everything about the campaign of slander. Hearing this horrible story, my blood curdled and I immediately returned home and passed the rest of the night by crying over it. During my absence, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) took counsel with Ali bin Talib (RA) & Usamah bin Zaid (RA) about this matter. Usamah (RA) said good words about me to this effect. Ali bin Talib (RA) told to the Prophet (pbuh) that "There was no dearth of women and if you liked he(pbuh) could marry another woman, he further said if you would like to further investigate the matter send for her maid servant and enquire. On enquiry, the maid servant replied, " I declare on oath that (By Allah (S.T.) who was sent you with the Truth that I have never seen any evil thing in her, except that she falls asleep when I asked her to look after the kneaded dough in my absence the goat comes and eat. This slander caused me great agony, and distress. I used to cry day & night. My parents were sicked with mental agony. At last, one day the Holy Prophet (pbuh) visited us and he (pbuh) sat near me, which he (pbuh) had not done since the slanderness started. My parents were also near us. The Prophet (pbuh) told me "A'isha (RA)! if you are innocent, I expect that Allah (S.T.) will declare it, but if you have committed a sin, you should offer repentance and ask for Allah's (ST) forgiveness. When a servant of Allah (S.T.) confesses his guilt and repents, Allah (S.T.) forgives him". By hearing these words, the tears dried in my eyes, I looked up to my father expecting that he would reply to the Holy Prophet (pbuh) but he said "Daughter, I do not know what I should say". The same thing was from my mother also. I said that you have all heard something about me and believed it. Now if I say that "I am innocent" you will not beleive me and if I confess something which I never did it. At that time I tried to call to my memory the name of Prophet Yakub (pbuh) but could not recall it. I said "I cannot but repeat words which the father of Prophet Yousuf (pbuh) had spoken. I will bear this patiently with good grace". By saying this I lay down and turned to the other side but in the meantime, suddenly the state of receiving Revelation appeared on the Prophet (pbuh). When pearl like drops of sweat used to gather on his (pbuh) face even in severe winter weather. We all held our breath and sat silent. As for me I was fearless but my parents seemed to be fear striken. When the Revelation was over the Prophet (pbuh) was very much pleased over. Joyed with happiness the first words he spoke were, "Congratulations A'isha Siddiqa (RA)! Allah (S.T.) sent down proof of your innocence" and then he (pbuh) recited the ten verses of (Surah 24 "An-Noor", Ayahs 11-21)".So, I like to mention atleat 2 Ayahs because this occur became a law against the blame on an innocent woman. If anyone fail to present four witnesses then he will be punished because of false blame.
At this, my mother said to me "Get up and thank the Prophet (pbuh)", I said "I shall neither thank him (pbuh) nor you too but thank to Allah (S.T.) who has sent down my absolution, even you did not contradict the charge against me".
The incident of slander has been taken from various books of Hadith and Encyclopedia of "Seerah".
The hypocrites took up mean and immoral tactices to dishonour the Prophet (pbuh) & his (pbuh) household. Allah (S.T.) defeated all their designs & plans. A'isha's Siddiqa (RA) stature and character as a great honoured and dignified lady and as a mother of the Believers.
Ummul-Mumineen A'isha Siddiqa (RA) died on 17th Ramadan-ul-Mubarak in 58 Hijri at the age of 66 years. Abu Huraira (RA) performed her funeral prayer and she was burried in "Jannatul-Baqi" (Graveyard).
MAY ALLAH (S.T.) BE PLEASED WITH HER.